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Plants 2016, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/plants5020025

Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)

University of Angers, UMR 1345 IRHS, SFR 4207 QUASAV, 2 Bd Lavoisier, F-49045 Angers, France
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Academic Editor: Maurizio Chiurazzi
Received: 20 March 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Nitrogen Metabolism)
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Abstract

In the context of climatic change, more heavy precipitation and more frequent flooding and waterlogging events threaten the productivity of arable farmland. Furthermore, crops were not selected to cope with flooding- and waterlogging-induced oxygen limitation. In general, low oxygen stress, unlike other abiotic stresses (e.g., cold, high temperature, drought and saline stress), received little interest from the scientific community and less financial support from stakeholders. Accordingly, breeding programs should be developed and agronomical practices should be adapted in order to save plants’ growth and yield—even under conditions of low oxygen availability (e.g., submergence and waterlogging). The prerequisite to the success of such breeding programs and changes in agronomical practices is a good knowledge of how plants adapt to low oxygen stress at the cellular and the whole plant level. In the present paper, we summarized the recent knowledge on metabolic adjustment in general under low oxygen stress and highlighted thereafter the major changes pertaining to the reconfiguration of amino acids syntheses. We propose a model showing (i) how pyruvate derived from active glycolysis upon hypoxia is competitively used by the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate synthase cycle, leading to alanine accumulation and NAD+ regeneration. Carbon is then saved in a nitrogen store instead of being lost through ethanol fermentative pathway. (ii) During the post-hypoxia recovery period, the alanine aminotransferase/glutamate dehydrogenase cycle mobilizes this carbon from alanine store. Pyruvate produced by the reverse reaction of alanine aminotransferase is funneled to the TCA cycle, while deaminating glutamate dehydrogenase regenerates, reducing equivalent (NADH) and 2-oxoglutarate to maintain the cycle function. View Full-Text
Keywords: alanine; alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT); glutamate; glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH); glycolysis; hypoxia; nitrogen alanine; alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT); glutamate; glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH); glycolysis; hypoxia; nitrogen
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MDPI and ACS Style

Diab, H.; Limami, A.M. Reconfiguration of N Metabolism upon Hypoxia Stress and Recovery: Roles of Alanine Aminotransferase (AlaAT) and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH). Plants 2016, 5, 25.

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