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Plants 2016, 5(2), 21; doi:10.3390/plants5020021

Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production

1
Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, HS Konsult AB, P.O. Box 271, SE-701 45 Örebro, Sweden
2
Precision Agriculture and Pedometrics, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 234, SE-523 23 Skara, Sweden
3
Swedish Seed and Oilseed Growers, P.O. Box 53, SE-230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
4
Rural Economy and Agricultural Society, Borgeby Slottsväg 11, SE-237 91 Bjärred, Sweden
5
Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Green Tech Park, P.O. Box 63, SE-532 21 Skara, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dilantha Fernando and Rishi R. Burlakoti
Received: 19 December 2015 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 22 April 2016
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Abstract

Outbreaks of clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne obligate parasite Plasmodiophora brassicae are common in oilseed rape (OSR) in Sweden. A DNA-based soil testing service that identifies fields where P. brassicae poses a significant risk of clubroot infection is now commercially available. It was applied here in field surveys to monitor the prevalence of P. brassicae DNA in field soils intended for winter OSR production and winter OSR field experiments. In 2013 in Scania, prior to planting, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 60% of 45 fields on 10 of 18 farms. In 2014, P. brassicae DNA was detected in 44% of 59 fields in 14 of 36 farms, in the main winter OSR producing region in southern Sweden. P. brassicae was present indicative of a risk for >10% yield loss with susceptible cultivars (>1300 DNA copies g soil−1) in 47% and 44% of fields in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Furthermore, P. brassicae DNA was indicative of sites at risk of complete crop failure if susceptible cultivars were grown (>50 000 copies g−1 soil) in 14% and 8% of fields in 2013 and 2014, respectively. A survey of all fields at Lanna research station in western Sweden showed that P. brassicae was spread throughout the farm, as only three of the fields (20%) showed infection levels below the detection limit for P.brassicae DNA, while the level was >50,000 DNA copies g−1 soil in 20% of the fields. Soil-borne spread is of critical importance and soil scraped off footwear showed levels of up to 682 million spores g−1 soil. Soil testing is an important tool for determining the presence of P. brassicae and providing an indication of potential yield loss, e.g., in advisory work on planning for a sustainable OSR crop rotation. This soil test is gaining acceptance as a tool that increases the likelihood of success in precision agriculture and in applied research conducted in commercial oilseed fields and at research stations. The present application highlights the importance of prevention of disease spread by cleaning of farm equipment, footwear, etc. View Full-Text
Keywords: Plasmodiophora brassicae; qPCR assay; predictive soil tests Plasmodiophora brassicae; qPCR assay; predictive soil tests
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wallenhammar, A.-C.; Gunnarson, A.; Hansson, F.; Jonsson, A. Quantification of Plasmodiophora brassicae Using a DNA-Based Soil Test Facilitates Sustainable Oilseed Rape Production. Plants 2016, 5, 21.

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