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Plants 2016, 5(2), 16; doi:10.3390/plants5020016

Paired Hierarchical Organization of 13-Lipoxygenases in Arabidopsis

1
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Lausanne, University of Geneva, quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
2
Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eleftherios P. Eleftheriou
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Jasmonate Pathway)
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Abstract

Embryophyte genomes typically encode multiple 13-lipoxygenases (13-LOXs) that initiate the synthesis of wound-inducible mediators called jasmonates. Little is known about how the activities of these different LOX genes are coordinated. We found that the four 13-LOX genes in Arabidopsis thaliana have different basal expression patterns. LOX2 expression was strong in soft aerial tissues, but was excluded both within and proximal to maturing veins. LOX3 was expressed most strongly in circumfasicular parenchyma. LOX4 was expressed in phloem-associated cells, in contrast to LOX6, which is expressed in xylem contact cells. To investigate how the activities of these genes are coordinated after wounding, we carried out gene expression analyses in 13-lox mutants. This revealed a two-tiered, paired hierarchy in which LOX6, and to a lesser extent LOX2, control most of the early-phase of jasmonate response gene expression. Jasmonates precursors produced by these two LOXs in wounded leaves are converted to active jasmonates that regulate LOX3 and LOX4 gene expression. Together with LOX2 and LOX6, and working downstream of them, LOX3 and LOX4 contribute to jasmonate synthesis that leads to the expression of the defense gene VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN2 (VSP2). LOX3 and LOX4 were also found to contribute to defense against the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Our results reveal that 13-LOX genes are organised in a regulatory network, and the data herein raise the possibility that other genomes may encode LOXs that act as pairs. View Full-Text
Keywords: jasmonic acid; jasmonate; oxylipin; eicosanoid; wounding; defense; herbivore jasmonic acid; jasmonate; oxylipin; eicosanoid; wounding; defense; herbivore
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chauvin, A.; Lenglet, A.; Wolfender, J.-L.; Farmer, E.E. Paired Hierarchical Organization of 13-Lipoxygenases in Arabidopsis. Plants 2016, 5, 16.

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