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Plants 2015, 4(3), 449-488; doi:10.3390/plants4030449

Keeping Control: The Role of Senescence and Development in Plant Pathogenesis and Defense

1
Freie Universität Berlin, Fachbereich Biologie, Chemie, Pharmazie, Institut für Biologie, Dahlem Centre of Plant Sciences, Angewandte Genetik, Albrecht-Thaer-Weg 6, 14195 Berlin, Germany
2
Norddeutsche Pflanzenzucht H.G. Lembke KG, Hohenlieth, D-24363 Holtsee, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salma Balazadeh
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 3 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Senescence)
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Abstract

Many plant pathogens show interactions with host development. Pathogens may modify plant development according to their nutritional demands. Conversely, plant development influences pathogen growth. Biotrophic pathogens often delay senescence to keep host cells alive, and resistance is achieved by senescence-like processes in the host. Necrotrophic pathogens promote senescence in the host, and preventing early senescence is a resistance strategy of plants. For hemibiotrophic pathogens both patterns may apply. Most signaling pathways are involved in both developmental and defense reactions. Increasing knowledge about the molecular components allows to distinguish signaling branches, cross-talk and regulatory nodes that may influence the outcome of an infection. In this review, recent reports on major molecular players and their role in senescence and in pathogen response are reviewed. Examples of pathosystems with strong developmental implications illustrate the molecular basis of selected control strategies. A study of gene expression in the interaction between the hemibiotrophic vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum and its cruciferous hosts shows processes that are fine-tuned to counteract early senescence and to achieve resistance. The complexity of the processes involved reflects the complex genetic control of quantitative disease resistance, and understanding the relationship between disease, development and resistance will support resistance breeding. View Full-Text
Keywords: senescence; development; pathogen; resistance; biotroph; necrotroph; hemibiotroph; Verticillium; signaling; gene expression senescence; development; pathogen; resistance; biotroph; necrotroph; hemibiotroph; Verticillium; signaling; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Häffner, E.; Konietzki, S.; Diederichsen, E. Keeping Control: The Role of Senescence and Development in Plant Pathogenesis and Defense. Plants 2015, 4, 449-488.

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