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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi7030081

A Generalized Model for Indoor Location Estimation Using Environmental Sound from Human Activity Recognition

1
Unidad Académica de Ingeniería Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Jardín Juarez 147, Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico
2
Unidad Academica de Ingeniería I, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Jardín Juarez 147, Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico
3
CONACYT, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Jardín Juarez 147, Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
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Abstract

The indoor location of individuals is a key contextual variable for commercial and assisted location-based services and applications. Commercial centers and medical buildings (e.g., hospitals) require location information of their users/patients to offer the services that are needed at the correct moment. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. In this paper, we present the development of an indoor location system which relies on the human activity recognition approach, using sound as an information source to infer the indoor location based on the contextual information of the activity that is realized at the moment. In this work, we analyze the sound information to estimate the location using the contextual information of the activity. A feature extraction approach to the sound signal is performed to feed a random forest algorithm in order to generate a model to estimate the location of the user. We evaluate the quality of the resulting model in terms of sensitivity and specificity for each location, and we also perform out-of-bag error estimation. Our experiments were carried out in five representative residential homes. Each home had four individual indoor rooms. Eleven activities (brewing coffee, cooking, eggs, taking a shower, etc.) were performed to provide the contextual information. Experimental results show that developing an indoor location system (ILS) that uses contextual information from human activities (identified with data provided from the environmental sound) can achieve an estimation that is 95% correct. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor location; human activity recognition; context information; CAD; random forest; machine learning algorithms indoor location; human activity recognition; context information; CAD; random forest; machine learning algorithms
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Galván-Tejada, C.E.; López-Monteagudo, F.E.; Alonso-González, O.; Galván-Tejada, J.I.; Celaya-Padilla, J.M.; Gamboa-Rosales, H.; Magallanes-Quintanar, R.; Zanella-Calzada, L.A. A Generalized Model for Indoor Location Estimation Using Environmental Sound from Human Activity Recognition. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 81.

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