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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5(7), 107; doi:10.3390/ijgi5070107

Modeling Change of Topographic Spatial Structures with DEM Resolution Using Semi-Variogram Analysis and Filter Bank

1
College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
2
CSIRO Land & Water, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Kainz
Received: 6 February 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
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Abstract

In this paper, the way topographic spatial information changes with resolution was investigated using semi-variograms and an Independent Structures Model (ISM) to identify the mechanisms involved in changes of topographic parameters as resolution becomes coarser or finer. A typical Loess Hilly area in the Loess Plateau of China was taken as the study area. DEMs with resolutions of 2.5 m and 25 m were derived from topographic maps with map scales of 1:10,000 using ANUDEM software. The ISM, in which the semi-variogram was modeled as the sum of component semi-variograms, was used to model the measured semi-variogram of the elevation surface. Components were modeled using an analytic ISM model and corresponding landscape components identified using Kriging and filter bank analyses. The change in the spatial components as resolution became coarser was investigated by modeling upscaling as a low pass linear filter and applying a general result to obtain an analytic model for the scaling process in terms of semi-variance. This investigation demonstrated how topographic structures could be effectively characterised over varying scales using the ISM model for the semi-variogram. The loss of information in the short range components with resolution is a major driver for the observed change in derived topographic parameters such as slope. This paper has helped to quantify how information is distributed among scale components and how it is lost in natural terrain surfaces as resolution becomes coarser. It is a basis for further applications in the field of geomorphometry. View Full-Text
Keywords: geostatistics; DEM; resolution; topographic spatial structures; Independent Structures Model; filter bank; Kriging geostatistics; DEM; resolution; topographic spatial structures; Independent Structures Model; filter bank; Kriging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, C.; Yang, Q.; Jupp, D.L.B.; Pang, G. Modeling Change of Topographic Spatial Structures with DEM Resolution Using Semi-Variogram Analysis and Filter Bank. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2016, 5, 107.

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