Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement
Finnish Geodetic Institute, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02431 Masala, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2013; in revised form: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Abstract: It is well known that the most accurate method to detect changes of height is the geodetic precise leveling method. Due to the high demand work and time needed for precise leveling alternative methods are studied to obtain high quality height information. Differential SAR interferometry techniques such as the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method are studied to detect millimeter level deformations in urban areas. Additionally, SAR analysis will provide spatially extensive information on subsidence. On the other hand, PSI subsidence rates have not yet been comprehensively compared to the precise leveling measurements of the subsidence of individual buildings. Typically subsidence rates are interpolated to a continuous spatial surface, but in this study, spatially discontinuous subsidence was measured for a set of individual buildings. Therefore, we conducted three precise leveling campaigns and measured in total 82 geodetic-grade bolts, which were tightly attached to the building foundations. Moreover, we used additional leveling data (obtained from the local authorities), which contained long time series of leveling data for individual buildings. In the present study, ERS and ENVISAT satellite SAR data were processed using a PSI algorithm and the results were compared to leveling data of individual buildings.
Keywords: persistent scatterer interferometry PSI; precise leveling; discontinuous urban subsidence; SAR; Turku
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Koskinen, J.; Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P. A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 797-816.
Karila K, Karjalainen M, Hyyppä J, Koskinen J, Saaranen V, Rouhiainen P. A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2013; 2(3):797-816.
Karila, Kirsi; Karjalainen, Mika; Hyyppä, Juha; Koskinen, Jarkko; Saaranen, Veikko; Rouhiainen, Paavo. 2013. "A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2, no. 3: 797-816.