ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2(3), 797-816; doi:10.3390/ijgi2030797
Article

A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement

Received: 20 June 2013; in revised form: 1 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: It is well known that the most accurate method to detect changes of height is the geodetic precise leveling method. Due to the high demand work and time needed for precise leveling alternative methods are studied to obtain high quality height information. Differential SAR interferometry techniques such as the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) method are studied to detect millimeter level deformations in urban areas. Additionally, SAR analysis will provide spatially extensive information on subsidence. On the other hand, PSI subsidence rates have not yet been comprehensively compared to the precise leveling measurements of the subsidence of individual buildings. Typically subsidence rates are interpolated to a continuous spatial surface, but in this study, spatially discontinuous subsidence was measured for a set of individual buildings. Therefore, we conducted three precise leveling campaigns and measured in total 82 geodetic-grade bolts, which were tightly attached to the building foundations. Moreover, we used additional leveling data (obtained from the local authorities), which contained long time series of leveling data for individual buildings. In the present study, ERS and ENVISAT satellite SAR data were processed using a PSI algorithm and the results were compared to leveling data of individual buildings.
Keywords: persistent scatterer interferometry PSI; precise leveling; discontinuous urban subsidence; SAR; Turku
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karila, K.; Karjalainen, M.; Hyyppä, J.; Koskinen, J.; Saaranen, V.; Rouhiainen, P. A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2013, 2, 797-816.

AMA Style

Karila K, Karjalainen M, Hyyppä J, Koskinen J, Saaranen V, Rouhiainen P. A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2013; 2(3):797-816.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karila, Kirsi; Karjalainen, Mika; Hyyppä, Juha; Koskinen, Jarkko; Saaranen, Veikko; Rouhiainen, Paavo. 2013. "A Comparison of Precise Leveling and Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry for Building Subsidence Rate Measurement." ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2, no. 3: 797-816.

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