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Biomolecules 2018, 8(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom8020021

Circulating MicroRNA Biomarkers in Melanoma: Tools and Challenges in Personalised Medicine

1
Medical Research Building, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9PS, UK
2
Pathology and Pharmacy Building at The Royal London Hospital, 80 Newark Street, London E1 2ES, UK
3
Huxley Building, School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
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Abstract

Effective management of melanoma depends heavily on early diagnosis. When detected in early non-metastatic stages, melanoma is almost 100% curable by surgical resection, however when detected in late metastatic stages III and IV, 5-year survival rates drop to ~50% and 10–25%, respectively, due to limited efficacy of current treatment options. This presents a pressing need to identify biomarkers that can detect patients at high risk of recurrence and progression to metastatic disease, which will allow for early intervention and survival benefit. Accumulating evidence over the past few decades has highlighted the potential use of circulating molecular biomarkers for melanoma diagnosis and prognosis, including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) fragments. Since 2010, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been increasingly recognised as more robust non-invasive biomarkers for melanoma due to their structural stability under the harsh conditions of the blood and different conditions of sample processing and isolation. Several pre-analytical and analytical variables challenge the accurate quantification of relative miRNA levels between serum samples or plasma samples, leading to conflicting findings between studies on circulating miRNA biomarkers for melanoma. In this review, we provide a critical summary of the circulating miRNA biomarkers for melanoma published to date. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; microRNAs; circulating biomarkers; diagnostic biomarkers; prognostic biomarkers; exosomes melanoma; microRNAs; circulating biomarkers; diagnostic biomarkers; prognostic biomarkers; exosomes
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Mumford, S.L.; Towler, B.P.; Pashler, A.L.; Gilleard, O.; Martin, Y.; Newbury, S.F. Circulating MicroRNA Biomarkers in Melanoma: Tools and Challenges in Personalised Medicine. Biomolecules 2018, 8, 21.

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