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Biomolecules 2017, 7(4), 74; doi:10.3390/biom7040074

Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis

1
Division of Cardiology, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
2
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
3
Windsor University School of Medicine, Cayon, Saint Kitts and Nevis
4
Division of Vascular Surgery, Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada
5
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
6
Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven Stacker
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones is a biological process that ensures an adequate blood flow is maintained to provide the cells with a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen within the body. Numerous soluble growth factors and inhibitors, cytokines, proteases as well as extracellular matrix proteins and adhesion molecules stringently regulate the multi-factorial process of angiogenesis. The properties and interactions of key angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and angiopoietins have been investigated in great detail with respect to their molecular impact on angiogenesis. Since the discovery of angiogenic growth factors, much research has been focused on their biological actions and their potential use as therapeutic targets for angiogenic or anti-angiogenic strategies in a context-dependent manner depending on the pathologies. It is generally accepted that these factors play an indispensable role in angiogenesis. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that this is not their only role and it is likely that the angiogenic factors have important functions in a wider range of biological and pathological processes. The additional roles played by these molecules in numerous pathologies and biological processes beyond angiogenesis are discussed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: angiogenesis; growth factors; pathologies; therapeutic targets angiogenesis; growth factors; pathologies; therapeutic targets
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Matkar, P.N.; Ariyagunarajah, R.; Leong-Poi, H.; Singh, K.K. Friends Turned Foes: Angiogenic Growth Factors beyond Angiogenesis. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 74.

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