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Biomolecules 2017, 7(3), 51; doi:10.3390/biom7030051

Lysosomal Regulation of mTORC1 by Amino Acids in Mammalian Cells

1
,
1,2
and
1,2,3,*
1
Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1137 East Catherine Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 East Medical enter Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kazuhiro Shiozaki and Ted Powers
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TOR Signaling Pathway)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [581 KB, uploaded 7 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a master regulator of cell growth in eukaryotic cells. The active mTORC1 promotes cellular anabolic processes including protein, pyrimidine, and lipid biosynthesis, and inhibits catabolic processes such as autophagy. Consistent with its growth-promoting functions, hyper-activation of mTORC1 signaling is one of the important pathomechanisms underlying major human health problems including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. The mTORC1 receives multiple upstream signals such as an abundance of amino acids and growth factors, thus it regulates a wide range of downstream events relevant to cell growth and proliferation control. The regulation of mTORC1 by amino acids is a fast-evolving field with its detailed mechanisms currently being revealed as the precise picture emerges. In this review, we summarize recent progress with respect to biochemical and biological findings in the regulation of mTORC1 signaling on the lysosomal membrane by amino acids. View Full-Text
Keywords: mTOR; mTORC1; rapamycin; Rheb; Rag; TSC; lysosome; amino acid; growth factor mTOR; mTORC1; rapamycin; Rheb; Rag; TSC; lysosome; amino acid; growth factor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yao, Y.; Jones, E.; Inoki, K. Lysosomal Regulation of mTORC1 by Amino Acids in Mammalian Cells. Biomolecules 2017, 7, 51.

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