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Biomolecules 2015, 5(4), 2573-2588; doi:10.3390/biom5042573

Alcohol and the Intestine

1,†,* , 1,†,* , 1,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,†
and
1,3,4,5,†
1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2
Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
3
Department of Pharmacology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
4
Department of Molecular Biophysics & Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
5
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht PO Box 80125, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Natalia Osna and Kusum Kharbanda
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 5 October 2015 / Published: 15 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Multi-Organ Alcohol-Related Damage: Mechanisms and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [107 KB, uploaded 15 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; dysbiosis; endotoxemia; gut leakiness alcohol; dysbiosis; endotoxemia; gut leakiness
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, S.; Behara, R.; Swanson, G.R.; Forsyth, C.B.; Voigt, R.M.; Keshavarzian, A. Alcohol and the Intestine. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2573-2588.

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