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Universe 2017, 3(3), 52;

Etherington’s Distance Duality with Birefringence

Department of Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Staudtstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics and Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gravitational Lensing and Astrometry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [226 KB, uploaded 6 July 2017]


We consider light propagation in a spacetime whose kinematics allow weak birefringence, and whose dynamics have recently been derived by gravitational closure. Revisiting the definitions of luminosity and angular diameter distances in this setting, we present a modification of the Etherington distance duality relation in a weak gravitational field around a point mass. This provides the first concrete example of how the non-metricities implied by gravitational closure of birefringent electrodynamics affect observationally testable relations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Etherington distance duality; modified gravity; gravitational lensing Etherington distance duality; modified gravity; gravitational lensing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schuller, F.P.; Werner, M.C. Etherington’s Distance Duality with Birefringence. Universe 2017, 3, 52.

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