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Universe 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/universe3010009

Initial Energy Density of √s = 7 and 8 TeV p–p Collisions at the LHC

Department of Atomic Physics, Eötvös Loránd University, H–1117 Budapest, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Hungary
Wigner RCP, H–1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49, Hungary
EKU KRC, H–3200 Gyöngyös, Mátrai út 36, Hungary
Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, 152 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roman Pasechnik, José Eliel Camargo-Molina and António Pestana Morais
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 February 2017 / Published: 11 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [434 KB, uploaded 11 February 2017]   |  


Results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Colloder (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments show that in relativistic heavy ion collisions, a new state of matter, a strongly interacting perfect fluid, is created. Accelerating, exact and explicit solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics allow for a simple and natural description of this medium. A finite rapidity distribution arises from these solutions, leading to an advanced estimate of the initial energy density of high energy collisions. These solutions can be utilized to describe various aspects of proton–proton collisions, as originally suggested by Landau. We show that an advanced estimate based on hydrodynamics yields an initial energy density in s = 7 and 8 TeV proton–proton (p–p) collisions at the LHC on the same order as the critical energy density from lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The advanced estimate yields a corresponding initial temperature that is around the critical temperature from QCD and the Hagedorn temperature. The multiplicity dependence of the estimated initial energy density suggests that in high multiplicity p–p collisions at the LHC, there is large enough initial energy density to create a non-hadronic perfect fluid. View Full-Text
Keywords: quark–gluon plasma; hydrodynamics; pseudorapidity distribution; initial state; energy density; Bjorken estimate quark–gluon plasma; hydrodynamics; pseudorapidity distribution; initial state; energy density; Bjorken estimate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Jiang, Z.-F.; Yang, C.-B. Initial Energy Density of √s = 7 and 8 TeV p–p Collisions at the LHC. Universe 2017, 3, 9.

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