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Metabolites 2017, 7(3), 36; doi:10.3390/metabo7030036

The Effect of Season on the Metabolic Profile of the European Clam Ruditapes decussatus as Studied by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

Chemometrics and Analytical Technology, Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, 1165 København, Denmark
Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Polytechnic University of Turin, 10129 Torino, Italy
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09126 Cagliari, Italy
Agris-Agricultural Research Agency of Sardinia, Ichthyc Products Research Service S.S. Sassari-Fertilia Km 18,600, 08013 Bonassai, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 26 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Metabolomics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3383 KB, uploaded 2 August 2017]   |  


In this study, the metabolome of Ruditapes decussatus, an economically and ecologically important marine bivalve species widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, was characterized by using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. Significant seasonal variations in the content of carbohydrates and free amino acids were observed. The relative amounts of alanine and glycine were found to exhibit the same seasonal pattern as the temperature and salinity at the harvesting site. Several putative sex-specific biomarkers were also discovered. Substantial differences were found for alanine and glycine, whose relative amounts were higher in males, while acetoacetate, choline and phosphocholine were more abundant in female clams. These findings reveal novel insights into the baseline metabolism of the European clam and represent a step forward towards a comprehensive metabolic characterization of the species. Besides providing a holistic view on the prominent nutritional components, the characterization of the metabolome of this bivalve represents an important prerequisite for elucidating the underlying metabolic pathways behind the environment-organism interactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: clams; metabolites; NMR spectroscopy; Ruditapes decussatus; Santa Gilla lagoon; seasonal change clams; metabolites; NMR spectroscopy; Ruditapes decussatus; Santa Gilla lagoon; seasonal change

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aru, V.; Balling Engelsen, S.; Savorani, F.; Culurgioni, J.; Sarais, G.; Atzori, G.; Cabiddu, S.; Cesare Marincola, F. The Effect of Season on the Metabolic Profile of the European Clam Ruditapes decussatus as Studied by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy. Metabolites 2017, 7, 36.

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