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Metabolites 2017, 7(1), 6; doi:10.3390/metabo7010006

Urine and Serum Metabolomics Analyses May Distinguish between Stages of Renal Cell Carcinoma

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N1N4, AB, Canada
2
James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore 21287, MD, USA
3
Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4N1, AB, Canada
4
Department of Surgery, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 4N1, AB, Canada
5
Prostate Cancer Centre, Rockyview Hospital, Calgary T2V 1P9, AB, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 3 February 2017
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Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a heterogeneous disease that is usually asymptomatic until late in the disease. There is an urgent need for RCC specific biomarkers that may be exploited clinically for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Preoperative fasting urine and serum samples were collected from patients with clinical renal masses and assessed with 1H NMR and GCMS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) based metabolomics and multivariate statistical analysis. Alterations in levels of glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were detected in RCC relative to benign masses. Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis plots discriminated between benign vs. pT1 (R2 = 0.46, Q2 = 0.28; AUC = 0.83), benign vs. pT3 (R2 = 0.58, Q2 = 0.37; AUC = 0.87) for 1H NMR-analyzed serum and between benign vs. pT1 (R2 = 0.50, Q2 = 0.37; AUC = 0.83), benign vs. pT3 (R2 = 0.72, Q2 = 0.68, AUC = 0.98) for urine samples. Separation was observed between benign vs. pT3 (R2 = 0.63, Q2 = 0.48; AUC = 0.93), pT1 vs. pT3 (R2 = 0.70, Q2 = 0.54) for GCMS-analyzed serum and between benign vs. pT3 (R2Y = 0.87; Q2 = 0.70; AUC = 0.98) for urine samples. This pilot study suggests that urine and serum metabolomics may be useful in differentiating benign renal tumors from RCC and for staging RCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; renal cell carcinoma; malignancy; renal lesions metabolomics; renal cell carcinoma; malignancy; renal lesions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Falegan, O.S.; Ball, M.W.; Shaykhutdinov, R.A.; Pieroraio, P.M.; Farshidfar, F.; Vogel, H.J.; Allaf, M.E.; Hyndman, M.E. Urine and Serum Metabolomics Analyses May Distinguish between Stages of Renal Cell Carcinoma. Metabolites 2017, 7, 6.

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