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Metabolites 2016, 6(3), 24; doi:10.3390/metabo6030024

Impact of Glucocorticoid Excess on Glucose Tolerance: Clinical and Preclinical Evidence

1
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2
Department of Physiological Sciences, Center of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 3 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glucocorticoids and Energy Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1475 KB, uploaded 3 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that exert important physiological actions on metabolism. Given that GCs also exert potent immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, synthetic GCs such as prednisolone and dexamethasone were developed for the treatment of autoimmune- and inflammatory-related diseases. The synthetic GCs are undoubtedly efficient in terms of their therapeutic effects, but are accompanied by significant adverse effects on metabolism, specifically glucose metabolism. Glucose intolerance and reductions in insulin sensitivity are among the major concerns related to GC metabolic side effects, which may ultimately progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of pre-clinical and clinical studies have aimed to understand the repercussions of GCs on glucose metabolism and the possible mechanisms of GC action. This review intends to summarize the main alterations that occur in liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets in the context of GC-induced glucose intolerance. For this, both experimental (animals) and clinical studies were selected and, whenever possible, the main cellular mechanisms involved in such GC-side effects were discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: dexamethasone; glucose homeostasis; glucose tolerance; insulin sensitivity; insulin signaling; outcomes; side-effects; peripheral tissues; prednisolone dexamethasone; glucose homeostasis; glucose tolerance; insulin sensitivity; insulin signaling; outcomes; side-effects; peripheral tissues; prednisolone
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pasieka, A.M.; Rafacho, A. Impact of Glucocorticoid Excess on Glucose Tolerance: Clinical and Preclinical Evidence. Metabolites 2016, 6, 24.

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