Next Article in Journal
Complex Mixture Analysis of Organic Compounds in Yogurt by NMR Spectroscopy
Previous Article in Journal
Development of Database Assisted Structure Identification (DASI) Methods for Nontargeted Metabolomics
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metabolites 2016, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/metabo6020018

Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk

1
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Emil Fischer Center, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Henkestr. 9, Erlangen 91054, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, Giggenhauser Str. 35, Freising 85354, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Per Bruheim
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 21 May 2016 / Accepted: 28 May 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1801 KB, uploaded 6 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The odor of human breast milk after ingestion of raw garlic at food-relevant concentrations by breastfeeding mothers was investigated for the first time chemo-analytically using gas chromatography−mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O), as well as sensorially using a trained human sensory panel. Sensory evaluation revealed a clear garlic/cabbage-like odor that appeared in breast milk about 2.5 h after consumption of garlic. GC-MS/O analyses confirmed the occurrence of garlic-derived metabolites in breast milk, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO) and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). Of these, only AMS had a garlic-like odor whereas the other two metabolites were odorless. This demonstrates that the odor change in human milk is not related to a direct transfer of garlic odorants, as is currently believed, but rather derives from a single metabolite. The formation of these metabolites is not fully understood, but AMSO and AMSO2 are most likely formed by the oxidation of AMS in the human body. The excretion rates of these metabolites into breast milk were strongly time-dependent with large inter-individual differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: garlic; human milk; gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry; allyl methyl sulfide; allyl methyl sulfoxide; allyl methyl sulfone garlic; human milk; gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry; allyl methyl sulfide; allyl methyl sulfoxide; allyl methyl sulfone
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scheffler, L.; Sauermann, Y.; Zeh, G.; Hauf, K.; Heinlein, A.; Sharapa, C.; Buettner, A. Detection of Volatile Metabolites of Garlic in Human Breast Milk. Metabolites 2016, 6, 18.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top