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Metabolites 2015, 5(2), 184-191; doi:10.3390/metabo5020184

Factors Influencing Production of Fusaristatin A in Fusarium graminearum

Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, 6700 Esbjerg, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work and should be regarded as joint first authors.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Meikle
Received: 26 January 2015 / Revised: 27 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
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Abstract

Fusarium graminearum is a ubiquitous plant pathogen, which is able to produce several bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, the cyclic lipopeptide fusaristatin A was isolated from this species and the biosynthetic gene cluster identified. Fusaristatin A consists of a C24 reduced polyketide and the three amino acids dehydroalanine, β-aminoisobutyric acid and glutamine and is biosynthesized by a collaboration of a polyketide synthase and a nonribosomal peptide synthetase. To gain insight into the environmental factors, which controls the production of fusaristatin A, we cultivated F. graminearum under various conditions. We developed an LC-MS/MS method to quantify fusaristatin A in F. graminearum extracts. The results showed that yeast extract sucrose (YES) medium was the best medium for fusaristatin A production and that the optimal pH was 7.5 and temperature 25–30 °C. Furthermore, production of fusaristatin A was more than four times higher in stationary cultures than in agitated cultures when F. graminearum was grown in liquid YES medium. The results also showed that fusaristatin A was only present in the mycelium and not in the liquid, which suggests that fusaristatin A is stored intracellulally and not exported to the extracellular environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; Polyketide synthases; Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases; production; secondary metabolites; mycotoxins; conditions; LC-MS/MS Fusarium; Polyketide synthases; Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases; production; secondary metabolites; mycotoxins; conditions; LC-MS/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hegge, A.; Lønborg, R.; Nielsen, D.M.; Sørensen, J.L. Factors Influencing Production of Fusaristatin A in Fusarium graminearum. Metabolites 2015, 5, 184-191.

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