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Metabolites 2015, 5(1), 74-99; doi:10.3390/metabo5010074

Taxonomic and Environmental Variation of Metabolite Profiles in Marine Dinoflagellates of the Genus Symbiodinium

1
SUNY—University at Buffalo, Graduate Program in Evolution, Ecology and Behavior and Department of Geology, Buffalo, NY 14260, USA
2
SUNY—College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Department of Chemistry, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
3
Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Marine Mammal and Turtle Division, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dirk Steinhauser
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolism in Phototrophic Prokaryotes and Algae)
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Abstract

Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems are essential to environmental sustainability. In the marine environment, invertebrates often depend on metabolic cooperation with their endosymbionts. Coral reefs, one of the most important marine ecosystems, are based on the symbiosis between a broad diversity of dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and a wide phyletic diversity of hosts (i.e., cnidarian, molluscan, poriferan). This diversity is reflected in the ecology and physiology of the symbionts, yet the underlying biochemical mechanisms are still poorly understood. We examined metabolite profiles of four cultured species of Symbiodinium known to form viable symbioses with reef-building corals, S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194), S. minutum (cp-type B184), S. psygmophilum (cp-type B224) and S. trenchii (cp-type D206). Metabolite profiles were shown to differ among Symbiodinium species and were found to be affected by their physiological response to growth in different temperatures and light regimes. A combined Random Forests and Bayesian analysis revealed that the four Symbiodinium species examined primarily differed in their production of sterols and sugars, including a C29 stanol and the two sterols C28Δ5 and C28Δ5,22, as well as differences in metabolite abundances of a hexose and inositol. Inositol levels were also strongly affected by changes in temperature across all Symbiodinium species. Our results offer a detailed view of the metabolite profile characteristic of marine symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, and identify patterns of metabolites related to several growth conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolism and metabolomics; metabolite profiling; phototrophic algae; marine dinoflagellates; Symbiodinium; bioinformatics and systems biology; Random Forests analysis metabolism and metabolomics; metabolite profiling; phototrophic algae; marine dinoflagellates; Symbiodinium; bioinformatics and systems biology; Random Forests analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klueter, A.; Crandall, J.B.; Archer, F.I.; Teece, M.A.; Coffroth, M.A. Taxonomic and Environmental Variation of Metabolite Profiles in Marine Dinoflagellates of the Genus Symbiodinium. Metabolites 2015, 5, 74-99.

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