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Metabolites 2015, 5(1), 119-139; doi:10.3390/metabo5010119

A Study of the Effects of Exercise on the Urinary Metabolome Using Normalisation to Individual Metabolic Output

1
Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE, UK
2
Glasgow Polyomics, University of Glasgow, Wolfson Wohl Cancer Research Centre, Glasgow G61 1 BD, UK
3
The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Garscube Estate, Glasgow G61 1BD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pollen K.F. Yeung
Received: 16 December 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 22 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Metabolomics)
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Abstract

Aerobic exercise, in spite of its multi-organ benefit and potent effect on the metabolome, has yet to be investigated comprehensively via an untargeted metabolomics technology. We conducted an exploratory untargeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry study to investigate the effects of a one-h aerobic exercise session in the urine of three physically active males. Individual urine samples were collected over a 37-h protocol (two pre-exercise and eight post-exercise). Raw data were subjected to a variety of normalization techniques, with the most effective measure dividing each metabolite by the sum response of that metabolite for each individual across the 37-h protocol expressed as a percentage. This allowed the metabolite responses to be plotted on a normalised scale. Our results highlight significant metabolites located in the following systems: purine pathway, tryptophan metabolism, carnitine metabolism, cortisol metabolism, androgen metabolism, amino acid oxidation, as well as metabolites from the gastrointestinal microbiome. Many of the significant changes observed in our pilot investigation mirror previous research studies, of various methodological designs, published within the last 15 years, although they have never been reported at the same time in a single study. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; urine; metabolomics; normalisation; mass spectrometry exercise; urine; metabolomics; normalisation; mass spectrometry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Daskalaki, E.; Blackburn, G.; Kalna, G.; Zhang, T.; Anthony, N.; Watson, D.G. A Study of the Effects of Exercise on the Urinary Metabolome Using Normalisation to Individual Metabolic Output. Metabolites 2015, 5, 119-139.

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