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Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85(1), 12; doi:10.3390/scipharm85010012

n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2
Center for Natural Antiinfective Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3
Faculty of Biology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
4
Akademi Analis Farmasi Al Islam Yogyakarta, Gedongkiwo, Mantrijeron, Yogyakarta 55142, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gernot Eller
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 8 March 2017 / Published: 13 March 2017
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Abstract

Inflammation is involved in the progression of many disorders, such as tumors, arthritis, gastritis, and atherosclerosis. Thus, the development of new agents targeting inflammation is still challenging. Medicinal plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases including inflammation. A previous study has indicated that dichloromethane extract of P. lanceolata leaves exerts anti-inflammatory activity in an in vitro model. Here, we examined the in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a n-hexane insoluble fraction of P. lanceolata leaves dichloromethane extract (HIFPL). We first evaluated its potency to reduce paw edema induced by carrageenan, and the expression of the proinflammatory enzyme, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, in mice. The efficacy of HIFPL to inhibit COX-2 was also evaluated in an in vitro enzymatic assay. We further studied the effect of HIFPL on leukocytes migration in mice induced by thioglycollate. The level of chemokines facilitating the migration of leukocytes was also measured. We found that HIFPL (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The HIFPL reduced the volume of paw edema and COX-2 expression. However, HIFPL acts as an unselective COX-2 inhibitor as it inhibited COX-1 with a slightly higher potency. Interestingly, HIFPL strongly inhibited leukocyte migration by reducing the level of chemokines, Interleukine-8 (IL-8) and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). View Full-Text
Keywords: Plantago lanceolata; anti-inflammation; chemokines Plantago lanceolata; anti-inflammation; chemokines
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fakhrudin, N.; Dwi Astuti, E.; Sulistyawati, R.; Santosa, D.; Susandarini, R.; Nurrochmad, A.; Wahyuono, S. n-Hexane Insoluble Fraction of Plantago lanceolata Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Mice by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase-2 and Reducing Chemokines Levels. Sci. Pharm. 2017, 85, 12.

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