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Sci. Pharm. 2011, 79(4), 963-975; doi:10.3797/scipharm.1108-19

A New Flavonoid C-Glycoside from Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. Leaves and Potential Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr-El-Ainy, 11562, Cairo, Egypt
2
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, 11787, Cairo, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 October 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
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Abstract

A major development over the past two decades has been the realization that free radical induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage are associated with major health problems, e.g. cancer and ageing. Plant-derived antioxidants are increasingly found beneficial in protecting against these diseases. Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. are two plants that have a variety of uses in folk medicine but have not been evaluated before for their antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Therefore, the extracts of both plants' leaves were investigated for these activities, as well as isolation of the bioactive compounds responsible for the activities. Molecular structures of the compounds were elucidated by UV, HRESIMS, 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (1H-13C HSQC and 1H-13C HMBC) NMR analyses. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts, n-butanol fractions and the isolated major compound were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay, xanthine oxidase-induced generation of superoxide radical and lipid peroxidation assay by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) method using rat tissue homogenates. Cytotoxic activities were studied using standard MTT assay. A novel flavonoid C-triglycoside, 4'''-α-rhamnopyranosyl-2''-O-β-ᴅ-galactopyranosylvitexin, was isolated from both plants' leaves, together with seven known flavonoids. The n-butanol fractions and the major compound 2''-O-β-galactopyranosylvitexin showed significant antioxidant activities, more pronounced than the tested standards BHT and ᴅʟ-α-tocopherol in most tests. All extracts showed variable cytotoxic activities. This study provides strong evidence for the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extracts of Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. leaves, which were attributed to the polar n-butanol fractions and the major isolated flavonoid 2''-galactosylvitexin.
Keywords: Celtis australis L. • Celtis occidentalis L. • Flavonoid C-glycosides • DPPH • Xanthine oxidase • Lipid peroxidation • Cytotoxic activities Celtis australis L. • Celtis occidentalis L. • Flavonoid C-glycosides • DPPH • Xanthine oxidase • Lipid peroxidation • Cytotoxic activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

EL-ALFY, T.S.; EL-GOHARY, H.M.A.; SOKKAR, N.M.; HOSNY, M.; AL-MAHDY, D.A. A New Flavonoid C-Glycoside from Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. Leaves and Potential Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities. Sci. Pharm. 2011, 79, 963-975.

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