Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century
AbstractThis overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary's profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries' missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.
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KLETTER, C. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century. Sci. Pharm. 2010, 78, 397-410.
KLETTER C. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century. Scientia Pharmaceutica. 2010; 78(3):397-410.Chicago/Turabian Style
KLETTER, Christa. 2010. "Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century." Sci. Pharm. 78, no. 3: 397-410.