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Diseases 2018, 6(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6020028

Implications of PI3K/AKT/PTEN Signaling on Superoxide Dismutases Expression and in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506, Japan
2
Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Contemporary Human Life Science, Tezukayama University, Nara 631-8501, Japan
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative sickness, where the speed of personal disease progression differs prominently due to genetic and environmental factors such as life style. Alzheimer’s disease is described by the construction of neuronal plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a noticeable feature of Alzheimer’s disease and increased production of reactive oxygen species has long been described. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) protect from excess reactive oxygen species to form less reactive hydrogen peroxide. It is suggested that SODs can play a protective role in neurodegeneration. In addition, PI3K/AKT pathway has been shown to play a critical role on the neuroprotection and inhibiting apoptosis via the enhancing expression of the SODs. This pathway appears to be crucial in Alzheimer’s disease because it is related to the tau protein hyper-phosphorylation. Dietary supplementation of several ordinary compounds may provide a novel therapeutic approach to brain disorders by modulating the function of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Understanding these systems may offer a better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the involvement of the SODs and PI3K/AKT pathway in neuroprotective signaling against Alzheimer’s disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; PI3K; AKT; PTEN; n-3 PUFAs; PPAR; superoxide dismutase; reactive oxygen species Alzheimer’s disease; PI3K; AKT; PTEN; n-3 PUFAs; PPAR; superoxide dismutase; reactive oxygen species
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Matsuda, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Tsuji, A.; Kitagishi, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Murai, T. Implications of PI3K/AKT/PTEN Signaling on Superoxide Dismutases Expression and in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Diseases 2018, 6, 28.

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