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Electronics 2018, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7010002

The Impact of Antenna Height on 3D Channel: A Ray Launching Based Analysis

1
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
2
Information Science and Engineering Department, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Ranplan Wireless Network Design Ltd., Cambridgeshire CB23 3UY, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 28 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) is one of the enabling technologies for next-generation mobile communication. As the elevation angle in the 3D MIMO channel model might vary against the height of the base station (BS) antenna, it should be considered within channel modeling. In this paper, the impact of antenna height on the channel characteristics of the 3D MIMO channel is investigated by using the intelligent ray launching algorithm (IRLA). Three typical street scenarios, i.e., the straight street, the forked road, and the crossroad, are selected as benchmarks. The joint and marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of both the elevation angle of departure (EAoD) and the elevation angle of arrival (EAoA) are obtained through simulations. Moreover, the elevation angle spread (AS) and the elevation delay spread (DS) under various antenna heights are jointly discussed. Simulation results show that the characteristics of the PDFs of EAoD will vary under different street scenarios. It is observed that in order to obtain the maximum or minimum value of the AS and the DS, the BS antenna should be deployed at half of the building height. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D; elevation angle; antenna height; elevation angle of departure; elevation angle of arrival; angle spread; delay spread 3D; elevation angle; antenna height; elevation angle of departure; elevation angle of arrival; angle spread; delay spread
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Hong, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, H.; Li, H.; Hu, H.; Zhang, B.; Lai, Z.; Zhang, J. The Impact of Antenna Height on 3D Channel: A Ray Launching Based Analysis. Electronics 2018, 7, 2.

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