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Electronics 2017, 6(1), 2;

Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats

Department of Computer Engineering, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alfredo Vaccaro and Jin (Wei) Kocsis
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid Cyber Security)
Full-Text   |   PDF [763 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  


In the future, automated demand response mechanisms will be used as spinning reserve. Demand response in the smart grid must be resilient to cyber-physical threats. In this paper, we evaluate the resilience of demand response when used as spinning reserve in the presence of cyber-physical threats. We quantify this evaluation by correlating the stability of the system in the presence of attacks measured by system frequency (Hz) and attack level measured by the amount of load (MW) that responds to the demand response event. The results demonstrate the importance of anticipating the dependability of demand response before it can be relied upon as spinning reserve. View Full-Text
Keywords: resilience; cyber-physical threats; power reserve; demand response resilience; cyber-physical threats; power reserve; demand response

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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AlMajali, A.; Viswanathan, A.; Neuman, C. Resilience Evaluation of Demand Response as Spinning Reserve under Cyber-Physical Threats. Electronics 2017, 6, 2.

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