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Biology 2017, 6(4), 40; doi:10.3390/biology6040040

Dual Roles of Fer Kinase Are Required for Proper Hematopoiesis and Vascular Endothelium Organization during Zebrafish Development

1
Department of Biology, 300 W. Hawthorne Rd., Whitworth University, Spokane, WA 99251, USA
2
Department of Biology, Hope College, Holland, MI 49423, USA
3
Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris O’Callaghan
Received: 15 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract

Fer kinase, a protein involved in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and proliferation, has been shown to be required during invertebrate development and has been implicated in leukemia, gastric cancer, and liver cancer. However, in vivo roles for Fer during vertebrate development have remained elusive. In this study, we bridge the gap between the invertebrate and vertebrate realms by showing that Fer kinase is required during zebrafish embryogenesis for normal hematopoiesis and vascular organization with distinct kinase dependent and independent functions. In situ hybridization, quantitative PCR and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses revealed an increase in both erythrocyte numbers and gene expression patterns as well as a decrease in the organization of vasculature endothelial cells. Furthermore, rescue experiments have shown that the regulation of hematopoietic proliferation is dependent on Fer kinase activity, while vascular organizing events only require Fer in a kinase-independent manner. Our data suggest a model in which separate kinase dependent and independent functions of Fer act in conjunction with Notch activity in a divergent manner for hematopoietic determination and vascular tissue organization. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-receptor tyrosine kinase; erythrocyte; vasculature; embryogenesis non-receptor tyrosine kinase; erythrocyte; vasculature; embryogenesis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dunn, E.M.; Billquist, E.J.; VanderStoep, A.L.; Bax, P.G.; Westrate, L.M.; McLellan, L.K.; Peterson, S.C.; MacKeigan, J.P.; Putzke, A.P. Dual Roles of Fer Kinase Are Required for Proper Hematopoiesis and Vascular Endothelium Organization during Zebrafish Development. Biology 2017, 6, 40.

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