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Biology 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/biology6010004

The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family

1
School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Camerino 62032, Italy
2
Singapore Centre for Environmental Life Sciences Engineering (SCELSE), Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, SBS-01N-27, Singapore 637551, Singapore
3
Division of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV 89512, USA
4
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana 1019, Albania
5
Department of Biology, University of Padova, via U. Bassi 58/B, Padua 35100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris O’Callaghan
Received: 2 November 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract

Organisms living in polar waters must cope with an extremely stressful environment dominated by freezing temperatures, high oxygen concentrations and UV radiation. To shed light on the genetic mechanisms on which the polar marine ciliate, Euplotes nobilii, relies to effectively cope with the oxidative stress, attention was focused on methionine sulfoxide reductases which repair proteins with oxidized methionines. A family of four structurally distinct MsrB genes, encoding enzymes specific for the reduction of the methionine-sulfoxide R-forms, were identified from a draft of the E. nobilii transcriptionally active (macronuclear) genome. The En-MsrB genes are constitutively expressed to synthesize proteins markedly different in amino acid sequence, number of CXXC motifs for zinc-ion binding, and presence/absence of a cysteine residue specific for the mechanism of enzyme regeneration. The En-MsrB proteins take different localizations in the nucleus, mitochondria, cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring a pervasive protection of all the major subcellular compartments from the oxidative damage. These observations have suggested to regard the En-MsrB gene activity as playing a central role in the genetic mechanism that enables E. nobilii and ciliates in general to live in the polar environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: methionine sulfoxide reductase; MsrB proteins; oxidative stress; polar microbiology; ciliate nano-chromosomes; Euplotes methionine sulfoxide reductase; MsrB proteins; oxidative stress; polar microbiology; ciliate nano-chromosomes; Euplotes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ricci, F.; Lauro, F.M.; Grzymski, J.J.; Read, R.; Bakiu, R.; Santovito, G.; Luporini, P.; Vallesi, A. The Anti-Oxidant Defense System of the Marine Polar Ciliate Euplotes nobilii: Characterization of the MsrB Gene Family. Biology 2017, 6, 4.

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