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Biology 2017, 6(1), 12; doi:10.3390/biology6010012

The Consequences of Chromosome Segregation Errors in Mitosis and Meiosis

1
Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
2
Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: J. Richard McIntosh
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Mitotic Chromosome Segregation)
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Abstract

Mistakes during cell division frequently generate changes in chromosome content, producing aneuploid or polyploid progeny cells. Polyploid cells may then undergo abnormal division to generate aneuploid cells. Chromosome segregation errors may also involve fragments of whole chromosomes. A major consequence of segregation defects is change in the relative dosage of products from genes located on the missegregated chromosomes. Abnormal expression of transcriptional regulators can also impact genes on the properly segregated chromosomes. The consequences of these perturbations in gene expression depend on the specific chromosomes affected and on the interplay of the aneuploid phenotype with the environment. Most often, these novel chromosome distributions are detrimental to the health and survival of the organism. However, in a changed environment, alterations in gene copy number may generate a more highly adapted phenotype. Chromosome segregation errors also have important implications in human health. They may promote drug resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. In cancer cells, they are a source for genetic and phenotypic variability that may select for populations with increased malignance and resistance to therapy. Lastly, chromosome segregation errors during gamete formation in meiosis are a primary cause of human birth defects and infertility. This review describes the consequences of mitotic and meiotic errors focusing on novel concepts and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: aneuploidy; polyploidy; microtubule; chromosome instability; cancer; birth defects; fertility; drug resistance; centromere; kinetochore aneuploidy; polyploidy; microtubule; chromosome instability; cancer; birth defects; fertility; drug resistance; centromere; kinetochore
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Potapova, T.; Gorbsky, G.J. The Consequences of Chromosome Segregation Errors in Mitosis and Meiosis. Biology 2017, 6, 12.

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