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Biology 2016, 5(2), 29; doi:10.3390/biology5020029

Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis

Department of Pediatrics/Human Development, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Academic Editor: Jukka Finne
Received: 7 March 2016 / Revised: 25 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis- what have we missed?)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7910 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The first anaerobic organism extracted energy for survival and reproduction from its source of nutrients, with the genetic means to ensure protection of its individual genome but also its species survival. While it had a means to communicate with its community via simple secreted molecules (“quorum sensing”), the eventual shift to an aerobic environment led to multi-cellular metazoan organisms, with evolutionary-selected genes to form extracellular matrices, stem cells, stem cell niches, and a family of gap junction or “connexin” genes. These germinal and somatic stem cells responded to extracellular signals that triggered intra-cellular signaling to regulate specific genes out of the total genome. These extra-cellular induced intra-cellular signals also modulated gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in order to regulate the new cellular functions of symmetrical and asymmetrical cell division, cell differentiation, modes of cell death, and senescence. Within the hierarchical and cybernetic concepts, differentiated by neurons organized in the brain of the Homo sapiens, the conscious mind led to language, abstract ideas, technology, myth-making, scientific reasoning, and moral decision–making, i.e., the creation of culture. Over thousands of years, this has created the current collision between biological and cultural evolution, leading to the global “metabolic disease” crisis. View Full-Text
Keywords: quorum sensing; gap junctions; stem cells; epigenetic mechanisms; biological and cultural evolution; symmetrical cell division; Warburg hypothesis; Barker Hypothesis quorum sensing; gap junctions; stem cells; epigenetic mechanisms; biological and cultural evolution; symmetrical cell division; Warburg hypothesis; Barker Hypothesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Trosko, J.E. Evolution of Microbial Quorum Sensing to Human Global Quorum Sensing: An Insight into How Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Might Be Linked to the Global Metabolic Disease Crisis. Biology 2016, 5, 29.

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