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Biology 2016, 5(2), 18; doi:10.3390/biology5020018

An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115, USA
Academic Editor: John S. Torday
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beyond the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis- what have we missed?)
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Abstract

Two major obstacles hinder the application of evolutionary theory to the origin of eukaryotes. The first is more apparent than real—the endosymbiosis that led to the mitochondrion is often described as “non-Darwinian” because it deviates from the incremental evolution championed by the modern synthesis. Nevertheless, endosymbiosis can be accommodated by a multi-level generalization of evolutionary theory, which Darwin himself pioneered. The second obstacle is more serious—all of the major features of eukaryotes were likely present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor thus rendering comparative methods ineffective. In addition to a multi-level theory, the development of rigorous, sequence-based phylogenetic and comparative methods represents the greatest achievement of modern evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, the rapid evolution of major features in the eukaryotic stem group requires the consideration of an alternative framework. Such a framework, based on the contingent nature of these evolutionary events, is developed and illustrated with three examples: the putative intron proliferation leading to the nucleus and the cell cycle; conflict and cooperation in the origin of eukaryotic bioenergetics; and the inter-relationship between aerobic metabolism, sterol synthesis, membranes, and sex. The modern synthesis thus provides sufficient scope to develop an evolutionary framework to understand the origin of eukaryotes. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative method; eukaryotes; evolutionary theory; levels of selection; mitochondria; modern synthesis; phylogenetic systematics comparative method; eukaryotes; evolutionary theory; levels of selection; mitochondria; modern synthesis; phylogenetic systematics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Blackstone, N.W. An Evolutionary Framework for Understanding the Origin of Eukaryotes. Biology 2016, 5, 18.

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