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Biology 2015, 4(1), 50-66; doi:10.3390/biology4010050

Treatment of Leptothrix Cells with Ultrapure Water Poses a Threat to Their Viability

1
Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Okayama 700-8530, Japan
2
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
3
Research Institute for Biological Sciences, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chris O’Callaghan
Received: 27 November 2014 / Revised: 16 January 2015 / Accepted: 19 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
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Abstract

The genus Leptothrix, a type of Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria, is characterized by its formation of an extracellular and microtubular sheath. Although almost all sheaths harvested from natural aquatic environments are hollow, a few chained bacterial cells are occasionally seen within some sheaths of young stage. We previously reported that sheaths of Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 cultured in artificial media became hollow with aging due to spontaneous autolysis within the sheaths. In this study, we investigated environmental conditions that lead the OUMS1 cells to die. Treatment of the cells with ultrapure water or acidic buffers (pH 6.0) caused autolysis of the cells. Under these conditions, the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of cells were drastically damaged, resulting in leakage of intracellular electrolytes and relaxation of genomic DNA. The autolysis was suppressed by the presence of Ca2+. The hydrolysis of peptidoglycan by the lysozyme treatment similarly caused autolysis of the cells and was suppressed also by the presence of Ca2+. However, it remains unclear whether the acidic pH-dependent autolysis is attributable to damage of peptidoglycan. It was observed that L. discophora strain SP-6 cells also underwent autolysis when suspended in ultrapure water; it is however, uncertain whether this phenomenon is common among other members of the genus Leptothrix. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leptothrix; cell death induced by UPW; acidic pH to cell viability; lack of Ca2+ to cell viability; peptidoglycan; damage of bacterial membrane; relaxation of DNA; electrolytes leakage Leptothrix; cell death induced by UPW; acidic pH to cell viability; lack of Ca2+ to cell viability; peptidoglycan; damage of bacterial membrane; relaxation of DNA; electrolytes leakage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kunoh, T.; Suzuki, T.; Shiraishi, T.; Kunoh, H.; Takada, J. Treatment of Leptothrix Cells with Ultrapure Water Poses a Threat to Their Viability. Biology 2015, 4, 50-66.

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