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Fibers 2018, 6(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib6020040

Mechanical Properties of a Water Hyacinth Nanofiber Cellulose Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Bionanocomposite: Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration during Processing

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Andalas University, 25163 Padang, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
2
Department of Agriculture Technology, Andalas University, 25163 Padang, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 19 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Fibre Biocomposites)
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Abstract

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) reinforced by 1 wt % nanofiber cellulose (NFC) reinforcing from water hyacinth was produced. Ultrasonic vibration time (UVT) was applied to bionanocomposites during gelation for 0, 15, 30 and 60 min. Morphology of the NFC was investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and tensile tests were performed to identify the fracture surface and determine the mechanical properties of the bionanocomposites, respectively. The Crystallinity index (CI) of untreated and treated bionanocomposites was measured using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The average diameter of NFC water hyacinth was 10–20 nm. The maximum tensile strength (TS) and modulus elasticity (ME) of the bionanocomposite was 11.4 MPa and 443 MPa respectively, after 60 min UVT. This result was supported by SEM which indicated good dispersion and compact structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanofiber cellulose; water hyacinth; thermoplastic starch; bionanocomposites; ultrasonic vibration time nanofiber cellulose; water hyacinth; thermoplastic starch; bionanocomposites; ultrasonic vibration time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Asrofi, M.; Abral, H.; Kasim, A.; Pratoto, A.; Mahardika, M.; Hafizulhaq, F. Mechanical Properties of a Water Hyacinth Nanofiber Cellulose Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch Bionanocomposite: Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration during Processing. Fibers 2018, 6, 40.

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