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Fibers 2014, 2(1), 45-74; doi:10.3390/fib2010045
Review

The Significance and Insignificance of Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammation

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Received: 24 December 2013; in revised form: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 13 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibres: Friend or Foe?)
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Abstract: In the present review article immune responses induced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are addressed. As inhalation is considered to be the primary entry route, and concern has been raised by similar high aspect ratio materials, the main focus lies on immune responses upon pulmonary exposure. Inflammation-related findings from both in vivo studies and in vitro models are reviewed, and the major responsible characteristics, which may drive CNT-induced inflammation in the lung, are discussed. In a second part, responses upon intentional administration of CNTs via subcutaneous and intravenous application are addressed, including their potential benefits and drawbacks for immunotherapy. Finally, the gastrointestinal tract as an alternative exposure route is briefly discussed. While there are many studies identifying numerous other factors involved in CNT-driven toxicity, e.g., cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity, the focus of this review was kept solely on CNT-induced inflammation. Overall the literature has shown that CNTs are able to induce inflammation, which in some cases was a particularly robust response coinciding with the development of pro-fibrotic conditions. In the majority of cases the greatest inflammatory responses were associated with CNTs of considerable length and a high aspect ratio, accompanied by other factors like dispersion and sample purity.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; inflammation; fibrosis; immunotherapy carbon nanotubes; inflammation; fibrosis; immunotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Boyles, M.S.; Stoehr, L.C.; Schlinkert, P.; Himly, M.; Duschl, A. The Significance and Insignificance of Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammation. Fibers 2014, 2, 45-74.

AMA Style

Boyles MS, Stoehr LC, Schlinkert P, Himly M, Duschl A. The Significance and Insignificance of Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammation. Fibers. 2014; 2(1):45-74.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Boyles, Matthew S.; Stoehr, Linda C.; Schlinkert, Paul; Himly, Martin; Duschl, Albert. 2014. "The Significance and Insignificance of Carbon Nanotube-Induced Inflammation." Fibers 2, no. 1: 45-74.

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