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Coatings 2017, 7(2), 17; doi:10.3390/coatings7020017

Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems

Materials & Engineering Research Institute, Faculty of Arts, Computing, Engineering and Sciences, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB, UK
Physics Department, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Ihiagwa PMB 1526, Imo, Nigeria
School of Electrical System Engineering, University of Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra Campus, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Kano University of Science and Technology, Wudil PMB 3244, Kano, Nigeria
California State University, Fresno 2320 E. San Ramon Ave., Fresno, CA 93740, USA
Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimo Innocenti and Alessandro Lavacchi
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 3 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thin Film Semiconductors for Photovoltaic Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3986 KB, uploaded 24 January 2017]   |  


Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films was carried out from the late 1970s using the cadmium sulphate precursor. The solar energy group at Sheffield Hallam University has carried out a comprehensive study of CdTe thin films electroplated using cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate and cadmium chloride precursors, in order to select the best electrolyte. Some of these results have been published elsewhere, and this manuscript presents the summary of the results obtained on CdTe layers grown from cadmium sulphate precursor. In addition, this research program has been exploring the ways of eliminating the reference electrode, since this is a possible source of detrimental impurities, such as K+ and Ag+ for CdS/CdTe solar cells. This paper compares the results obtained from CdTe layers grown by three-electrode (3E) and two-electrode (2E) systems for their material properties and performance in CdS/CdTe devices. Thin films were characterized using a wide range of analytical techniques for their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties. These layers have also been used in device structures; glass/FTO/CdS/CdTe/Au and CdTe from both methods have produced solar cells to date with efficiencies in the region of 5%–13%. Comprehensive work carried out to date produced comparable and superior devices fabricated from materials grown using 2E system. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrodeposition; CdTe; CdSO4 precursor; solar energy materials; CdS/CdTe solar cells electrodeposition; CdTe; CdSO4 precursor; solar energy materials; CdS/CdTe solar cells

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dharmadasa, I.M.; Madugu, M.L.; Olusola, O.I.; Echendu, O.K.; Fauzi, F.; Diso, D.G.; Weerasinghe, A.R.; Druffel, T.; Dharmadasa, R.; Lavery, B.; Jasinski, J.B.; Krentsel, T.A.; Sumanasekera, G. Electroplating of CdTe Thin Films from Cadmium Sulphate Precursor and Comparison of Layers Grown by 3-Electrode and 2-Electrode Systems. Coatings 2017, 7, 17.

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