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Coatings 2016, 6(4), 54; doi:10.3390/coatings6040054

Introduction to Advanced X-ray Diffraction Techniques for Polymeric Thin Films

Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA
Academic Editor: Andriy Voronov
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 24 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Thin Films)
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Abstract

X-ray diffraction has been a standard technique for investigating structural properties of materials. However, most common applications in the organic materials community have been restricted to either chemical identification or qualitative strain analysis. Moreover, its use for polymeric thin films has been challenging because of the low structure factor of carbon and the thin film nature of the sample. Here, we provide a short review of advanced X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques suitable for polymeric thin films, including the type of analysis that can be done and measurement geometries that would compensate low signals due to low carbon structure factor and the thin film nature of the sample. We will also briefly cover the χ -pole figure for texture analysis of ultra-thin film that has recently become commonly used. A brief review of XRD theory is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: thin film; polymer; XRD; X-ray; organic photovoltaics; organic electronics; structure; GIXD thin film; polymer; XRD; X-ray; organic photovoltaics; organic electronics; structure; GIXD
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Widjonarko, N.E. Introduction to Advanced X-ray Diffraction Techniques for Polymeric Thin Films. Coatings 2016, 6, 54.

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