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Coatings 2014, 4(4), 747-755; doi:10.3390/coatings4040747

Effect of Surface Passivation on Electrical Properties of Pd-F:SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique

1
Department of Physics, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
2
Department of Physics, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya
3
Department of Physics, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190, 50100 Kakamega, Kenya
4
Faculty of Science Technology and Environmental Studies, Open University of Tanzania, P.O. Box 31608, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 July 2014 / Revised: 3 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
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Abstract

Pd-F:SnO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Optimization has been done by doping SnO2 with palladium at varying levels of concentration and then recording sheet resistance. The sheet resistivity has been observed to decrease gradually as at% Pd concentration is increased; an optimum sheet resistivity value of 2.71 × 10−2 Ω cm has been recorded. The decrease in sheet resistivity has been attributed to presence of Pd ions which contribute in increment of charge carrier density. Using the optimum value of at% Pd doping, the same procedure has been repeated to study the effect of fluorine on Pd:SnO2; an optimum value of 1.64 × 10−4 Ω cm sheet resistivity has been recorded. This decrease has been attributed to substitution of O with those of fluorine hence improving charge carrier density. The effect of passivation has been studied by comparing as prepared, annealed and passivated Pd-F:SnO2 thin films. Annealing has been observed to decrease the sheet resistivity to 1.21 × 10−4 Ω cm, while passivation has the effect of increasing the sheet resistivity to 1.53 × 10−4 Ω cm which is attributed to effects resulting from annealing the samples in nitrogen gas atmosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: spray pyrolysis; fluorine doping; palladium doping; codoping; palladium and fluorine co-doping; annealing; passivation; F-co-doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F:SnO2) spray pyrolysis; fluorine doping; palladium doping; codoping; palladium and fluorine co-doping; annealing; passivation; F-co-doped Pd:SnO2 (Pd-F:SnO2)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mwathe, P.; Musembi, R.; Munji, M.; Odari, V.; Munguti, L.; Ntilakigwa, A.; Nguu, J.; Muthoka, B. Effect of Surface Passivation on Electrical Properties of Pd-F:SnO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Technique. Coatings 2014, 4, 747-755.

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