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Antibiotics 2018, 7(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7030083

Natural Products from Actinobacteria Associated with Fungus-Growing Termites

1
Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology—Hans-Knöll-Institute, Beutenbergstraße 11a, 07745 Jena, Germany
2
Section for Ecology and Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen East, Denmark
3
Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agriculture Biotechnology Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Actinomycetes: The Antibiotics Producers)
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Abstract

The chemical analysis of insect-associated Actinobacteria has attracted the interest of natural product chemists in the past years as bacterial-produced metabolites are sought to be crucial for sustaining and protecting the insect host. The objective of our study was to evaluate the phylogeny and bioprospecting of Actinobacteria associated with fungus-growing termites. We characterized 97 Actinobacteria from the gut, exoskeleton, and fungus garden (comb) of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis and used two different bioassays to assess their general antimicrobial activity. We selected two strains for chemical analysis and investigated the culture broth of the axenic strains and fungus-actinobacterium co-cultures. From these studies, we identified the previously-reported PKS-derived barceloneic acid A and the PKS-derived rubterolones. Analysis of culture broth yielded a new dichlorinated diketopiperazine derivative and two new tetracyclic lanthipeptides, named rubrominins A and B. The discussed natural products highlight that insect-associated Actinobacteria are highly prolific natural product producers yielding important chemical scaffolds urgently needed for future drug development programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: actinobacteria; symbiosis; secondary metabolites; drug discovery; chemical ecology actinobacteria; symbiosis; secondary metabolites; drug discovery; chemical ecology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Benndorf, R.; Guo, H.; Sommerwerk, E.; Weigel, C.; Garcia-Altares, M.; Martin, K.; Hu, H.; Küfner, M.; de Beer, Z.W.; Poulsen, M.; Beemelmanns, C. Natural Products from Actinobacteria Associated with Fungus-Growing Termites. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 83.

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