Next Article in Journal
Establishing a System for Testing Replication Inhibition of the Vibrio cholerae Secondary Chromosome in Escherichia coli
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of Human and Animal Health Students towards Antibiotic Use and Resistance: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study in the UK
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Evidence for Anti-Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) Activity of Propolis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antibiotics 2018, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/antibiotics7010001

Sperm Quality during Storage Is Not Affected by the Presence of Antibiotics in EquiPlus Semen Extender but Is Improved by Single Layer Centrifugation

Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul 41002, Iraq
Institute of Microbiology, Vetmeduni Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Centre for Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer, Vetmeduni Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonard Amaral
Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 18 December 2017 / Published: 21 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Top 35 of Antibiotics Travel Awards 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2331 KB, uploaded 26 December 2017]   |  


Contamination of semen with bacteria arises during semen collection and handling. This bacterial contamination is typically controlled by adding antibiotics to semen extenders but intensive usage of antibiotics can lead to the development of bacterial resistance and may be detrimental to sperm quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of antibiotics in a semen extender on sperm quality and to investigate the effects of removal of bacteria by modified Single Layer Centrifugation (MSLC) through a colloid. Semen was collected from six adult pony stallions (three ejaculates per male). Aliquots of extended semen were used for MSLC with Equicoll, resulting in four treatment groups: control and MSLC in extender with antibiotics (CA and SA, respectively); control and MSLC in extender without antibiotics (CW and SW, respectively). Sperm motility, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and chromatin integrity were evaluated daily by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry. There were no differences in sperm quality between CA and CW, or between SA and SW, although progressive motility was negatively correlated to total bacterial counts at 0 h. However, MSLC groups showed higher mean total motility (P < 0.001), progressive motility (P < 0.05), membrane integrity (P < 0.0001) and mitochondrial membrane potential (P < 0.05), as well as better chromatin integrity (P < 0.05), than controls. Sperm quality remained higher in the MSLC groups than controls throughout storage. These results indicate that sperm quality was not adversely affected by the presence of antibiotics but was improved considerably by MSLC. View Full-Text
Keywords: pony stallions; bacteria; semen evaluation pony stallions; bacteria; semen evaluation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Kass, Z.; Spergser, J.; Aurich, C.; Kuhl, J.; Schmidt, K.; Johannisson, A.; Morrell, J.M. Sperm Quality during Storage Is Not Affected by the Presence of Antibiotics in EquiPlus Semen Extender but Is Improved by Single Layer Centrifugation. Antibiotics 2018, 7, 1.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top