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Antibiotics 2017, 6(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics6040028

Interplay between Colistin Resistance, Virulence and Fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii

1
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Centre for Neurosciences and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract

Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen often resistant to multiple antibiotics classes. Colistin, an “old” antibiotic, is now considered a last-line treatment option for extremely resistant isolates. In the meantime, resistance to colistin has been reported in clinical A. baumannii strains. Colistin is a cationic peptide that disrupts the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin resistance is primarily due to post-translational modification or loss of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules inserted into the outer leaflet of the OM. LPS modification prevents the binding of polymyxin to the bacterial surface and may lead to alterations in bacterial virulence. Antimicrobial pressure drives the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and resistance is often associated with a reduced bacterial fitness. Therefore, the alterations in LPS may induce changes in the fitness of A. baumannii. However, compensatory mutations in clinical A. baumannii may ameliorate the cost of resistance and may play an important role in the dissemination of colistin-resistant A. baumannii isolates. The focus of this review is to summarize the colistin resistance mechanisms, and understand their impact on the fitness and virulence of bacteria and on the dissemination of colistin-resistant A. baumannii strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; colistin; polymyxin; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance; lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; biological cost; virulence; two-component systems Acinetobacter baumannii; colistin; polymyxin; antimicrobial resistance; multidrug resistance; lipopolysaccharide; lipid A; biological cost; virulence; two-component systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Da Silva, G.J.; Domingues, S. Interplay between Colistin Resistance, Virulence and Fitness in Acinetobacter baumannii. Antibiotics 2017, 6, 28.

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