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Antibiotics 2016, 5(3), 25; doi:10.3390/antibiotics5030025

Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991–2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study

1
Global Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Pharmatelligence, Cardiff CF14 3QX, UK
2
Mylan Established Pharmaceuticals Division, Weesp 1381 CP, The Netherlands
3
Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK
4
Cochrane Institute of Primary Care and Public Health, Cardiff University, The Pharma Research Centre, Abton House, Wedal Road, Cardiff CF14 3QX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dan I. Andersson
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
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Abstract

We studied non-response rates to antibiotics in the under-reported subgroup of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years old, using standardised criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure. Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Annual, non-response rates by antibiotics and by indication were determined. We identified 824,651 monotherapies in 415,468 adolescents: 368,900 (45%) episodes for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), 89,558 (11%) for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 286,969 (35%) for skin/soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and 79,224 (10%) for acute otitis media (AOM). The most frequently prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (27%), penicillin-V (24%), erythromycin (11%), flucloxacillin (11%) and oxytetracycline (6%). In 1991, the overall non-response rate was 9.3%: 11.9% for LRTIs, 9.5% for URTIs, 7.1% for SSTIs, 9.7% for AOM. In 2012, the overall non-response rate was 9.2%. Highest non-response rates were for AOM in 1991–1999 and for LRTIs in 2000–2012. Physicians generally prescribed antibiotics to adolescents according to recommendations. Evidence of antibiotic non-response was less common among adolescents during this 22-year study period compared with an all-age population, where the overall non-response rate was 12%. View Full-Text
Keywords: otitis media; adolescents; primary care; first line; respiratory tract infection; skin infection; treatment response; treatment failure; antibiotics otitis media; adolescents; primary care; first line; respiratory tract infection; skin infection; treatment response; treatment failure; antibiotics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Berni, E.; Scott, L.A.; Jenkins-Jones, S.; De Voogd, H.; Rocha, M.S.; Butler, C.C.; Morgan, C.L.; Currie, C.J. Non-Response to Antibiotic Treatment in Adolescents for Four Common Infections in UK Primary Care 1991–2012: A Retrospective, Longitudinal Study. Antibiotics 2016, 5, 25.

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