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Biosensors 2017, 7(1), 13; doi:10.3390/bios7010013

A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer

Materials Research Centre & School of LSPC, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University London, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE, UK
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Academic Editor: Jeff D. Newman
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract

A potentiometric enzyme biosensor is a convenient detector for quantification of urea concentrations in industrial processes, or for monitoring patients with diabetes, kidney damage or liver malfunction. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene-co-3-thiopheneacetic acid) (P(3HT-co-3TAA)) was chemically synthesized, characterized and spin-coated onto conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) glass electrodes. Urease (Urs) was covalently attached to the smooth surface of this copolymer via carbodiimide coupling. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified Urs/P(3HT-co-3TAA)/ITO glass electrode were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, and the bound enzyme activity was confirmed by spectrophotometry. Potentiometric response studies indicated that this electrode could determine the concentration of urea in aqueous solutions, with a quasi-Nernstian response up to about 5 mM. No attempt was made to optimize the response speed; full equilibration occurred after 10 min, but the half-time for response was typically <1 min. View Full-Text
Keywords: urea; urease; biosensors; potentiometry; polythiophene; conducting polymer urea; urease; biosensors; potentiometry; polythiophene; conducting polymer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lai, C.-Y.K.; Foot, P.J.S.; Brown, J.W.; Spearman, P. A Urea Potentiometric Biosensor Based on a Thiophene Copolymer. Biosensors 2017, 7, 13.

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