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Biosensors 2016, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/bios6030044

A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine

KIST Europe Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Universität d. Saarlandes, Campus Geb. E7.1, Saarbrücken 66123, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeff D. Newman
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 18 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Nanobiosensors for Environmental, Food and Clinical Analyses)
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Abstract

Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; cytochrome P450; electrochemistry; PAMAM dendrimers biosensor; cytochrome P450; electrochemistry; PAMAM dendrimers
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Müller, M.; Agarwal, N.; Kim, J. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine. Biosensors 2016, 6, 44.

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