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Nonlinear Impedance of Whole Cells Near an Electrode as a Probe of Mitochondrial Activity
Department of Physics and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
These authors equally contributed to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2011; in revised form: 25 March 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Abstract: By simultaneously measuring the bulk media and electrode interface voltages of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspension subjected to an AC voltage, a yeast-dependent nonlinear response was found only near the current injection electrodes. Computer simulation of yeast near a current injection electrode found an enhanced voltage drop across the yeast near the electrode due to slowed charging of the electrode interfacial capacitance. This voltage drop is sufficient to induce conformation change in membrane proteins. Disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is found to significantly change the measured nonlinear current response, suggesting nonlinear impedance can be used as a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity.
Keywords: nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy; bioimpedance; mitochondria; fermentation
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Palanisami, A.; Mercier, G.T.; Fang, J.; Miller Jr., J.H. Nonlinear Impedance of Whole Cells Near an Electrode as a Probe of Mitochondrial Activity. Biosensors 2011, 1, 46-57.
Palanisami A, Mercier GT, Fang J, Miller Jr. JH. Nonlinear Impedance of Whole Cells Near an Electrode as a Probe of Mitochondrial Activity. Biosensors. 2011; 1(2):46-57.
Palanisami, Akilan; Mercier, George T.; Fang, Jie; Miller Jr., John H. 2011. "Nonlinear Impedance of Whole Cells Near an Electrode as a Probe of Mitochondrial Activity." Biosensors 1, no. 2: 46-57.