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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070510

Optical Biosensing System for the Detection of Survivin mRNA in Colorectal Cancer Cells Using a Graphene Oxide Carrier-Bound Oligonucleotide Molecular Beacon

1
Department of Biophysics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 159 Nowoursynowska Street, 02776 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Human Histology and Embryology, University of Warmia and Mazury, 30 Warszawska Street, 10082 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 30 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
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Abstract

The anti-apoptotic protein survivin is one of the most promising cancer biomarkers owing to its high expression in human cancers and rare occurrence in normal adult tissues. In this work, we have investigated the role of supramolecular interactions between a graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet nanocarrier and a survivin molecular beacon (SurMB), functionalized by attaching fluorophore Joe and quencher Dabcyl (SurMB-Joe). Molecular dynamics simulations revealed hydrogen bonding of Joe moiety and Dabcyl to GO carriers that considerably increase the SurMB-GO bonding strength. This was confirmed in experimental work by the reduced fluorescence background in the OFF state, thereby increasing the useful analytical signal range for mRNA detection. A new mechanism of hairpin–hairpin interaction of GO@SurMB with target oligonucleotides has been proposed. A low limit of detection, LOD = 16 nM (S/N = 3), has been achieved for complementary tDNA using GO@SurMB-Joe nanocarriers. We have demonstrated an efficient internalization of SurMB-Joe-loaded GO nanocarriers in malignant SW480 cells. The proposed tunability of the bonding strength in the attached motifs for MBs immobilized on nanocarriers, via structural modifications, should be useful in gene delivery systems to enhance the efficacy of gene retention, cell transfection and genomic material survivability in the cellular environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide nanosheet nanocarrier; hairpin–hairpin interactions; survivin mRNA; molecular beacon probe; SW480 cancer cells graphene oxide nanosheet nanocarrier; hairpin–hairpin interactions; survivin mRNA; molecular beacon probe; SW480 cancer cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ratajczak, K.; Krazinski, B.E.; Kowalczyk, A.E.; Dworakowska, B.; Jakiela, S.; Stobiecka, M. Optical Biosensing System for the Detection of Survivin mRNA in Colorectal Cancer Cells Using a Graphene Oxide Carrier-Bound Oligonucleotide Molecular Beacon. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 510.

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