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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020091

Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans

1
Powder Technology Laboratory, Institute of Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, 18000 Niš, Serbia
3
Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 1 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract

Due to the growing issues with fungal infections, especially with Candida, there is still a need to develop novel anti-Candida materials. One of the known antifungal agents is undecylenic acid (UA), which still cannot be efficiently used due to its oily nature, and thus limited solubility. By taking advantage of the properties of UA, we developed an emulsion with hexagonal phase, i.e., hexosomes, whose structure and morphology was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryo-electron microscopy, respectively. The presence of UA in the hexosome was confirmed by spectroscopy. Moreover, we studied the anti-Candida effect of hexosomes and their cytotoxicity toward human cells. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the 50% and 90% Candida-growth reduction was found at 0.01 and 0.16 wt % hexosomes, respectively (i.e., 2 and 32 pghex/C.a.cell, respectively). The percentage of metabolically active Candida was reduced by 72–96% at hexosome concentrations of 1.0–8.2 pghex/C.a.cell as compared to untreated Candida. Furthermore, at the same concentration range the embedded filamentation test after 24 and 48 h showed the inhibition of both the filamentation and growth of Candida, while the preliminary toxicity test showed that hexosomes were nontoxic for human cells. All these render the here-developed hexosomes with UA efficient and promising anti-Candida agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: undecylenic acid; lipid-based liquid crystal; hexosome; antifungal; fungicidal; anti-Candida; Candida albicans undecylenic acid; lipid-based liquid crystal; hexosome; antifungal; fungicidal; anti-Candida; Candida albicans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mionić Ebersold, M.; Petrović, M.; Fong, W.-K.; Bonvin, D.; Hofmann, H.; Milošević, I. Hexosomes with Undecylenic Acid Efficient against Candida albicans. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 91.

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