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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(1), 8; doi:10.3390/nano7010008

SERS-Based Flavonoid Detection Using Ethylenediamine-β-Cyclodextrin as a Capturing Ligand

1
Center for Biotechnology Research in UBITA (CBRU), Institute for Ubiquitous Information Technology and Application (UBITA), Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
2
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
3
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Microbial Carbohydrate Resource Bank (MCRB) & Center for Biotechnology Research in UBITA (CBRU), Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
4
Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
5
School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea
6
Department of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea
7
Departments of Bacteriology and Genetics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Cölfen
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2539 KB, uploaded 6 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ethylenediamine-modified β-cyclodextrin (Et-β-CD) was immobilized on aggregated silver nanoparticle (NP)-embedded silica NPs (SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs) for the effective detection of flavonoids. Silica NPs were used as the template for embedding silver NPs to create hot spots and enhance surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. Et-β-CD was immobilized on Ag NPs to capture flavonoids via host-guest inclusion complex formation, as indicated by enhanced ultraviolet absorption spectra. The resulting SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs were used as the SERS substrate for detecting flavonoids, such as hesperetin, naringenin, quercetin, and luteolin. In particular, luteolin was detected more strongly in the linear range 10−7 to 10−3 M than various organic molecules, namely ethylene glycol, β-estradiol, isopropyl alcohol, naphthalene, and toluene. In addition, the SERS signal for luteolin captured by the SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs remained even after repeated washing. These results indicated that the SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs can be used as a rapid, sensitive, and selective sensor for flavonoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclodextrin; ethylenediamine cyclodextrin; surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS); flavonoids cyclodextrin; ethylenediamine cyclodextrin; surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS); flavonoids
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    Description: Figure S1. Schematic illustration of the synthesis of Et-β-CD@Ag@SiO2 NPs. Figure S2. 1D NMR spectra of Et-β-CD. (a) 1H NMR spectrum; (b) 13C NMR spectrum. The NMR experiments were carried out on a Brucker Avance spectrometer at 600 MHz in a D2O solution at 25 °C. Figure S3. UV-Vis absorbance of SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD NPs reacted with Nar, Hes, Lut, and Que. Figure S4. TEM images of Ag@SiO2 NPs in EtOH Ag@SiO2 NPs measured using an energy-filtering transmission electron microscope (EF-TEM, LIBRA 120, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany ). The accelerating voltage was 120 kV. Figure S5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. (a) SERS spectra of organic molecu-les after mixing with Et-β-CD@Ag@SiO2 NPs (i. no target, ii. ethylene glycol, iii. β-estradiol, iv. Isop-ropyl alcohol, v. naphthalene, vi. toluene and vii. Lut); (b) SERS spectra of (i) SiO2@Ag NPs, (ii) SiO2@Ag NPs reacted with Aniline, (iii) SiO2@Ag@Et-β-CD reacted with Aniline, and (iv) SiO2@Ag@Et-β--CD NPs reacted with mixing solution of Lut and aniline. Figure S6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra and normalized SERS intensity graph. SERS spectra of SiO2@ Ag NPs mixed with Lut at 1 × 10−2 M to 1 × 10−7 M.

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Choi, J.M.; Hahm, E.; Park, K.; Jeong, D.; Rho, W.-Y.; Kim, J.; Jeong, D.H.; Lee, Y.-S.; Jhang, S.H.; Chung, H.J.; Cho, E.; Yu, J.-H.; Jun, B.-H.; Jung, S. SERS-Based Flavonoid Detection Using Ethylenediamine-β-Cyclodextrin as a Capturing Ligand. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 8.

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