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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(6), 100; doi:10.3390/nano6060100

Fabricating Water Dispersible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications through Ligand Exchange and Direct Conjugation

1
Department of Chemistry, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, QC H3A 0B8, Canada
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, C.P. 6079 succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
3
Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, 5000 Bélanger Street, Montreal, QC H1T 1C8, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas Nann
Received: 13 April 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 26 May 2016
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Abstract

Stable superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), which can be easily dispersed in an aqueous medium and exhibit high magnetic relaxivities, are ideal candidates for biomedical applications including contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. We describe a versatile methodology to render water dispersibility to SPIONs using tetraethylene glycol (TEG)-based phosphonate ligands, which are easily introduced onto SPIONs by either a ligand exchange process of surface-anchored oleic-acid (OA) molecules or via direct conjugation. Both protocols confer good colloidal stability to SPIONs at different NaCl concentrations. A detailed characterization of functionalized SPIONs suggests that the ligand exchange method leads to nanoparticles with better magnetic properties but higher toxicity and cell death, than the direct conjugation methodology. View Full-Text
Keywords: superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; nanoparticle ligand functionalization; contrast agents; magnetic resonance imaging; cell internalization superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; nanoparticle ligand functionalization; contrast agents; magnetic resonance imaging; cell internalization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lam, T.; Avti, P.K.; Pouliot, P.; Maafi, F.; Tardif, J.-C.; Rhéaume, É.; Lesage, F.; Kakkar, A. Fabricating Water Dispersible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications through Ligand Exchange and Direct Conjugation. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 100.

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