Next Article in Journal
Green Synthesis of Iron Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Applications and Implications
Previous Article in Journal
Oral Toxicity and Intestinal Transport Mechanism of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Treated Red Ginseng
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 210;

Effect of Crystal Orientation on Self-Assembly Nanocones Formed on Tungsten Surface Induced by Helium Ion Irradiation and Annealing

College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John H. T. Luong
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2571 KB, uploaded 12 November 2016]   |  


The self-assembly nanocone structures on the surface of polycrystalline tungsten were created by He+ ion irradiation and then annealing, and the resulting topography and morphology were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The cross-sectional samples of the self-assembly nanocones were prepared using an in situ–focused ion beam and then observed using transmission electron microscopy. The self-assembly nanocones were induced by the combined effect of He+ ion irradiation, the annealing process and the chromium impurity. The distribution characteristics, density and morphology of the nanocones exhibited a distinct difference relating to the crystal orientations. The highest density of the nanocones was observed on the grain surface with a (1 1 1) orientation, with the opposite for that with a (0 0 1) orientation and a medium value on the (1 0 1)-oriented grain. The size of the self-assembly nanocones increased with increasing the annealing time which met a power-law relationship. Irradiation-induced defects acted as the nucleation locations of the protrusions which attracted the migration of the tiny amount of chromium atoms. Under the action of temperature, the protrusions finally evolved into the nanocones. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanocone; self-assembly; tungsten; irradiation; crystal orientation nanocone; self-assembly; tungsten; irradiation; crystal orientation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, S.; Ran, G.; Lei, P.; Wu, S.; Chen, N.; Li, N. Effect of Crystal Orientation on Self-Assembly Nanocones Formed on Tungsten Surface Induced by Helium Ion Irradiation and Annealing. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 210.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nanomaterials EISSN 2079-4991 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top