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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(1), 14; doi:10.3390/nano6010014

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of a Li/S Cell

1
National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, China
2
Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3
Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
4
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
5
School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
6
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
7
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andy (Xueliang) Sun and Xifei Li
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 11 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Li-Ion Batteries and Beyond)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [979 KB, uploaded 11 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

The X-ray absorption spectroscopy technique has been applied to study different stages of the lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cell life cycle. We have investigated how speciation of S in Li/S cathodes changes upon the introduction of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CH3(CH2)15N+(CH3)3Br) and with charge/discharge cycling. The introduction of CTAB changes the synthesis reaction pathway dramatically due to the interaction of CTAB with the terminal S atoms of the polysulfide ions in the Na2Sx solution. For the cycled Li/S cell, the loss of electrochemically active sulfur and the accumulation of a compact blocking insulating layer of unexpected sulfur reaction products on the cathode surface during the charge/discharge processes make the capacity decay. A modified coin cell and a vacuum-compatible three-electrode electro-chemical cell have been introduced for further in-situ/in-operando studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium/sulfur cell; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; synthesis; capacity decay; cycled cathode materials; insulating layer; in-situ/in-operando lithium/sulfur cell; X-ray absorption spectroscopy; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; synthesis; capacity decay; cycled cathode materials; insulating layer; in-situ/in-operando
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ye, Y.; Kawase, A.; Song, M.-K.; Feng, B.; Liu, Y.-S.; Marcus, M.A.; Feng, J.; Cairns, E.J.; Guo, J.; Zhu, J. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Characterization of a Li/S Cell. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 14.

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